English Sound Structure

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Account Options Login. Koleksiku Bantuan Penelusuran Buku Lanjutan. Belanja Buku di Google Play Jelajahi eBookstore terbesar di dunia dan baca lewat web, tablet, ponsel, atau ereader mulai hari ini. Chris McCully. In the midth century, Melville Bell invented a writing system that he called "Visible Speech. However, Visible Speech was more than a pedagogical tool for deaf education -- it was the first system for notating the sounds of speech independent of the choice of particular language or dialect.

This was an extremely important step -- without this step, it is nearly impossible to study the sound systems of human languages in any sort of general way.

In the 's, Melville Bell's three sons -- Melville, Edward and Alexander -- went on a lecture tour of Scotland, demonstrating the Visible Speech system to appreciative audiences. In their show, one of the brothers would leave the auditorium, while the others brought volunteers from the audience to perform interesting bits of speech -- words or phrases in a foreign language, or in some non-standard dialect of English.

These performances would be notated in Visible Speech on a blackboard on stage. When the absent brother returned, he would imitate the sounds produced by the volunteers from the audience, solely by reading the Visible Speech notations on the blackboard. In those days before the phonograph, radio or television, this was interesting enough that the Scots were apparently happy to pay money to see it!

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There are some interesting connections between the "visible speech" alphabet and the later career of one of the three performers, Alexander Graham Bell, who began following in his father's footsteps as a teacher of the deaf, but then went on to invent the telephone. Look especially at the discussion of Bell's "Ear Phonautograph" and artificial vocal tract.

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After Melville Bell's invention, notations like Visible Speech were widely used in teaching students from the provinces or from foreign countries how to speak with a standard accent. This was one of the key goals of early phoneticians like Henry Sweet said to have been the model for Henry Higgins, who teaches Eliza Doolittle to speak "properly" in Shaw's Pygmalion and its musical adaptation My Fair Lady. The IPA. Although the IPA's emphasis has shifted in a more descriptive direction, there remains a lively tradition in Great Britain of teaching "received pronunciation" using explicit training in the IPA.

While other phonetic alphabetic notations are in use, the IPA alphabet is the most widely used by linguists. Many of these symbols have their familiar value, but don't confuse spelling with pronunciation.

The Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique

When we write a phonetic transcription, i. Notice that the chart like the main IPA chart is organized along two main dimensions.

Only terms needed for English are listed here. In addition, the obstruent sounds stops, affricates, fricatives come in voiced and voiceless varieties.


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The sonorant sounds nasals, liquids, glides are normally voiced. The glottal stop , which is written as , has a limited role in English. It is the catch in the throat between the two vowels in uh-oh.


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The patterning of sounds in languages generally depends on the "natural classes" of sounds defined by these articulatory labels. For example, in English, the plural suffix spelled " e s" is realized in three different ways, depending on the preceding sound. Similarly, the past-tense suffix spelled "ed" is realized in three different ways, again depending on the preceding sound.

As Pinker discusses, these generalizations can extend to new sounds borrowed from other languages. These German words, which end in voiceless fricatives not found in English velar and palatal , follow the patterns just discussed when the final consonant is pronounced in the German way.

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He out-Bachs Bach with voiceless [s] She out-Bached Bach with voiceless [t] The extension of patterns in this way confirms that what speakers understand out these processes is not the arbitrary list of sounds that cause a pattern to arise, but rather the class of sounds -- which could contain members not yet heard in the language. Phonetics: the physical manifestation of language in sound waves; how these sounds are articulated and perceived phonology : the mental representation of sounds as part of a symbolic cognitive system; how abstract sound categories are manipulated in the processing of language.

How to Argue with a Cat. Jay Heinrichs. Heini Gruffudd. Let's Sign Pocket Dictionary. Cath Smith. British Sign Language For Dummies. City Lit Centre for the Deaf London. Don't Believe A Word.

The effects of native language on Indian English sounds and timing patterns.

David Shariatmadari. The New Penguin Russian Course. Nicholas J. Have You Eaten Grandma? Gyles Brandreth. The Etymologicon.

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