Bupleurum Species: Scientific Evaluation and Clinical Applications
Year , Volume 59 , Issue 4, Pages - Zotero Mendeley EndNote. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from different parts of endemic Bupleurum L. Endemik Bupleurum L.
CN101704862A - 从藏药绵参中提取具有抗氧化活性的化合物及其提取方法 - Google Patents
Abstract en tr The essential oils of Bupleurum heldreichii Boiss. The antibacterial activity of the oils which obtained by hydrodistillation was assessed with micro-dilution assays. The main components of B. The essential oils of B. The MIC values of essential oils of the roots for the bacterial strains tested, which were sensitive to the essential oils of roots of B. This investigation showed that the antibacterial activity of B. Bupleurum heldreichii Boiss.
Keywords en tr Antibacterial activity , endemic Bupleurum species , essential oil composition , microdilution. African J Biotechnol, 9 15 , Life Sci, 63, In Guangdong province of China, the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum species are sold separately for the folk use . Besides, the aerial parts of Bupleurum species are used as a popular topical antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy in Spain .
Whether the root and aerial parts vary in the types and quantities of chemical constituents which subsequently influence their therapeutic effects, would determine whether the aerial parts of Bupleurum species could be used as a suitable substitute for the root. Additionally, whether Chaihu should be prescribed as root, aerial parts or whole plant of Bupleurum species was also needed to be clarified by scientific evidences, so as to prevent or avoid the misuse of this herb.
Bupleurum Species Scientific Evaluation And Clinical Applications
To differentiate the crude materials from which medicinal parts used in proprietary Chinese medicines containing Chaihu is also significant for their quality control. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the chemical profiles is highly needed to be conducted for the two different parts. The authentic species of B. The overall results provided comprehensive chemical comparison for the two different parts of Bupleurum species, which was anticipated to advise the possibilities of alternate use of these two parts. Methods Plant materials Eight batches of the whole plant including the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum chinense DC.
Details of the sample are shown in Table 1 and Fig. All the herbal samples were authenticated by Prof. Chemicals and reagents Chemical markers of saikosaponins a, c and d were purchased from Chengdu Must Bio-Technology Co.
Bupleurum chinense DC. Bupleurum yinchowense Shan et Y. Li Bupleurum yinchowense Shan et Y.
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Li Bupleurum falcatum L. Preparation of sample solution The dried roots and aerial parts of eight batches of samples involving Bupleurum chinense, B. After centrifugation at rpm for 10 min, the supernatant was transferred into a 25 ml volumetric flask and was adjusted to the volume with methanol. Finally, 1. Stock solutions of saikosaponins a, c and d were prepared individually in methanol.
BEH, Waters, U. The mobile phase was a mixture of water A and acetonitrile B , both containing 0. The flow rate was set at 0.
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Data analysis standards. Other peaks were tentatively identified by comparison of their accurate mass data with those reported in the literature. Detailed information related to the illustration of all 56 peaks was shown in Table 2.
In the TIC chromatograms, saikosaponins and flavonoids represents majority of the peaks identified, with flavonoids peaks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 54, 55 and 56 accumulated in the previous 10 min of the eluting time while saikosaponins were eluted at the rest of time. The root and aerial parts of all the three Bupleurum species exhibited varied profiles. It is distinct and consistent for all the roots contain more chromatographic peaks covering both of the saikosaponin and flavonoid part of the TIC chromatograms. The profiles of the roots from the three Bupleurum species were similar especially for the characteristic saikosaponin part peaks 20— In contrast, the aerial parts contain abundantly flavonoids with little or no saikosaponin peaks.
The results clearly demonstrated the distinct chemical profiles of the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum species. Yen et al. The results showed that the aerial parts contained low levels of saikosaponins, which were different from that of the root . These were in accordance with those provided in the present study, which thus strengthened the conclusions that the aerial parts could not be used as an alternate of root from a chemodiversity perspective. The representative total ions current TIC chromatograms of the different parts from B. The major peaks in the TIC chromatograms were identified, with peaks 20, 28 and 43 unambiguously identified as saikosaponins c, a and d SSc, SSa and SSd by comparison of their chromatographic retention times, accurate molecular weights and characteristic mass fragment ions with those of the references The differences between the root and aerial parts of eight herbal samples were further displayed by the Principal Component Analysis PCA.
The full time-of-flight TOF mass spectral data of each sample were first processed by MassHunter Workstation software. Ions were extracted by molecular feature extraction MFE algorithm characterized by retention time RT , intensity in apex of chromatographic peak, and accurate mass, exported as the Compound Exchange Format.
Finally features were left for further PCA study. The resulting PCA graph also demonstrated the distinct clustering between the root and aerial parts of the investigated samples, which indicating the chemical difference between these two parts Fig. Li b and B. Peak No. C51H80O20 C59H74O10 Nine compounds, out of entities from the above frequency filtration were found to be significantly different among the two parts using one way ANOVA and a level of probability of 0.
These differentiating markers with the lowest p-values and highest foldchanges most significant with greatest abundance differences posed mostly influential features for the differentiation between the root and aerial parts, which therefore could be used as markers for differentiation. Thus, the approach established here will provide a comprehensive analysis of chemical profiles between the root and aerial parts from the commonly used Bupleurum species which will be helpful for testing the crude materials of proprietary Chinese medicines containing Chaihu as well as for establishing guidelines for the appropriate clinical use of Chaihu.
Furthermore, this information will be of great significance to the efficient use of botanical resources. Availability of data and materials The data was included in figures and tables of the manuscript. The supporting data and materials can be obtained upon request via email to the corresponding author. LZ and ZTL made the design of the study, took part in all the study and drafted manuscript.
TY and YM helped for analyzing data. And all authors contributed to revising the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Consent for publication Not applicable. Conclusions The present study revealed the distinct chemical profiles between the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum species, which indicated that the aerial parts could not be used as an alternative of root from a chemodiversity perspective.
Received: 30 November Accepted: 31 May The quality comparison of root and aerial parts from Bupleurum Chinense DC. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medical. Comparative study of the in vitro bioactivities of Bupleurum rigidum and B. Nat Prod Commun. Evaluation of root quality of Bupleurum species by TLC scanner and the liver protective effects of "xiao-chai-hutang" prepared using three different Bupleurum species. J Ethnopharmacol.
References 1. Chemical Industry Press, ; Beijing. Species classification and quality assessment of Chaihu Radix Bupleuri based on high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and combined chemometrics methods. Arch Pharm Res. Xiao PG.
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